In this paper, I will offer a case study which will show the process of change in Israel from a monolingual society to a more openly multilingual one. As the language policy evolved, new immigrants from Russia began to learn not just Hebrew but also Russian at a mother language level. I will show how the language policy of 1995 was implemented in the local junior high school in Bet-Eliezar, Hadera, during this period. Through the implementation of teaching Russian in the school system, the students maintained a fruitful relationship with their nuclear family. The relationship between the students and the school, between the students and their parents and between the parents and the school helped the students become a part of a stable environment despite the drastic changes that were going on in their lives as a result of their migration to Israel.
I would like to show how, in one junior high school in Bet-Eliezar, Hadera, the use of Russian as a mother language helped to ease the immigration process; thereby fostering feelings of security and well being in the students. It is my hypothesis that the implementation of teaching students their ancestor’s heritage language can help stop the increased crime and drug rate that is seen today in the young Ethiopian community in Israel.
Key words: language policy, prestige, new immigrants, multilingualism, language attitudes, mother tongue
The contemporary Lithuania is a multiethnic country for which formulating an appropriate ethnic and language policy after the restoration of independence represented the key aspect for consolidation of the democratic political system. The article provides an overview of the legislative development of the Republic of Lithuania in the area of rights of ethnic minorities within the interpretive scope referring to Lithuanian political discourse and international political and legal standards. The basis of the Lithuanian concept is confronted with the scope of practical consequences brought about by real application. It is argued that the effort to accommodate the groups of ethnic subjects of neighbouring regionally hegemonic countries reflects in two principles: firstly, in inclusive and relatively tolerant attitude towards ethnic minorities, including the issue of citizenship, minority school system and culture; secondly, in strict language regulation and political valorisation of Lithuanian as the privileged means of communication in the public sphere.
Keywords: Lithuania; ethnic minorities; ethnic policy; language policy.
This article is supported by research project of IPS, FSV, UK: MSM 0021620841- Development of the Czech Society in the EU: Challenges and Risks.1 Comment